Unit Test fatalError in Swift

3 Solutions Collect From Internet About “Unit Test fatalError in Swift”

The idea is to replace the built-in fatalError function with your own, which is replaced during a unit test’s execution, so that you run unit test assertions in it.

However, the tricky part is that fatalError is @noreturn, so you need to override it with a function which never returns.

Override fatalError

In your app target only (don’t add to the unit test target):

// overrides Swift global `fatalError`
@noreturn func fatalError(@autoclosure message: () -> String = "", file: StaticString = __FILE__, line: UInt = __LINE__) {
    FatalErrorUtil.fatalErrorClosure(message(), file, line)
    unreachable()
}

/// This is a `noreturn` function that pauses forever
@noreturn func unreachable() {
    repeat {
        NSRunLoop.currentRunLoop().run()
    } while (true)
}

/// Utility functions that can replace and restore the `fatalError` global function.
struct FatalErrorUtil {

    // Called by the custom implementation of `fatalError`.
    static var fatalErrorClosure: (String, StaticString, UInt) -> () = defaultFatalErrorClosure

    // backup of the original Swift `fatalError`
    private static let defaultFatalErrorClosure = { Swift.fatalError($0, file: $1, line: $2) }

    /// Replace the `fatalError` global function with something else.
    static func replaceFatalError(closure: (String, StaticString, UInt) -> ()) {
        fatalErrorClosure = closure
    }

    /// Restore the `fatalError` global function back to the original Swift implementation
    static func restoreFatalError() {
        fatalErrorClosure = defaultFatalErrorClosure
    }
}

Extension

Add the following extension to your unit test target:

extension XCTestCase {
    func expectFatalError(expectedMessage: String, testcase: () -> Void) {

        // arrange
        let expectation = expectationWithDescription("expectingFatalError")
        var assertionMessage: String? = nil

        // override fatalError. This will pause forever when fatalError is called.
        FatalErrorUtil.replaceFatalError { message, _, _ in
            assertionMessage = message
            expectation.fulfill()
        }

        // act, perform on separate thead because a call to fatalError pauses forever
        dispatch_async(dispatch_get_global_queue(QOS_CLASS_USER_INITIATED, 0), testcase)

        waitForExpectationsWithTimeout(0.1) { _ in
            // assert
            XCTAssertEqual(assertionMessage, expectedMessage)

            // clean up 
            FatalErrorUtil.restoreFatalError()
        }
    }
}

Testcase

class TestCase: XCTestCase {
    func testExpectPreconditionFailure() {
        expectFatalError("boom!") {
            doSomethingThatCallsFatalError()
        }
    }
}

I got the idea from this post about unit testing assert and precondition:
Testing assertion in Swift

Thanks to nschum and Ken Ko for the idea behind this answer.

Here is a gist for how to do it.

Here is an example project.

This answer is not just for fatal error. It’s also for the other assertion methods (assert, assertionFailure, precondition, preconditionFailure and fatalError)

1. Drop ProgrammerAssertions.swift to the target of your app or framework under test. Just besides your source code.

ProgrammerAssertions.swift

import Foundation

/// drop-in replacements

public func assert(@autoclosure condition: () -> Bool, @autoclosure _ message: () -> String = "", file: StaticString = __FILE__, line: UInt = __LINE__) {
    Assertions.assertClosure(condition(), message(), file, line)
}

public func assertionFailure(@autoclosure message: () -> String = "", file: StaticString = __FILE__, line: UInt = __LINE__) {
    Assertions.assertionFailureClosure(message(), file, line)
}

public func precondition(@autoclosure condition: () -> Bool, @autoclosure _ message: () -> String = "", file: StaticString = __FILE__, line: UInt = __LINE__) {
    Assertions.preconditionClosure(condition(), message(), file, line)
}

@noreturn public func preconditionFailure(@autoclosure message: () -> String = "", file: StaticString = __FILE__, line: UInt = __LINE__) {
    Assertions.preconditionFailureClosure(message(), file, line)
    runForever()
}

@noreturn public func fatalError(@autoclosure message: () -> String = "", file: StaticString = __FILE__, line: UInt = __LINE__) {
    Assertions.fatalErrorClosure(message(), file, line)
    runForever()
}

/// Stores custom assertions closures, by default it points to Swift functions. But test target can override them.
public class Assertions {

    public static var assertClosure              = swiftAssertClosure
    public static var assertionFailureClosure    = swiftAssertionFailureClosure
    public static var preconditionClosure        = swiftPreconditionClosure
    public static var preconditionFailureClosure = swiftPreconditionFailureClosure
    public static var fatalErrorClosure          = swiftFatalErrorClosure

    public static let swiftAssertClosure              = { Swift.assert($0, $1, file: $2, line: $3) }
    public static let swiftAssertionFailureClosure    = { Swift.assertionFailure($0, file: $1, line: $2) }
    public static let swiftPreconditionClosure        = { Swift.precondition($0, $1, file: $2, line: $3) }
    public static let swiftPreconditionFailureClosure = { Swift.preconditionFailure($0, file: $1, line: $2) }
    public static let swiftFatalErrorClosure          = { Swift.fatalError($0, file: $1, line: $2) }
}

/// This is a `noreturn` function that runs forever and doesn't return.
/// Used by assertions with `@noreturn`.
@noreturn private func runForever() {
    repeat {
        NSRunLoop.currentRunLoop().run()
    } while (true)
}

2. Drop XCTestCase+ProgrammerAssertions.swift to your test target. Just besides your test cases.

XCTestCase+ProgrammerAssertions.swift

import Foundation
import XCTest
@testable import Assertions

private let noReturnFailureWaitTime = 0.1

public extension XCTestCase {

    /**
     Expects an `assert` to be called with a false condition.
     If `assert` not called or the assert's condition is true, the test case will fail.

     - parameter expectedMessage: The expected message to be asserted to the one passed to the `assert`. If nil, then ignored.
     - parameter file:            The file name that called the method.
     - parameter line:            The line number that called the method.
     - parameter testCase:        The test case to be executed that expected to fire the assertion method.
     */
    public func expectAssert(
        expectedMessage: String? = nil,
        file: StaticString = __FILE__,
        line: UInt = __LINE__,
        testCase: () -> Void
        ) {

            expectAssertionReturnFunction("assert", file: file, line: line, function: { (caller) -> () in

                Assertions.assertClosure = { condition, message, _, _ in
                    caller(condition, message)
                }

                }, expectedMessage: expectedMessage, testCase: testCase) { () -> () in
                    Assertions.assertClosure = Assertions.swiftAssertClosure
            }
    }

    /**
     Expects an `assertionFailure` to be called.
     If `assertionFailure` not called, the test case will fail.

     - parameter expectedMessage: The expected message to be asserted to the one passed to the `assertionFailure`. If nil, then ignored.
     - parameter file:            The file name that called the method.
     - parameter line:            The line number that called the method.
     - parameter testCase:        The test case to be executed that expected to fire the assertion method.
     */
    public func expectAssertionFailure(
        expectedMessage: String? = nil,
        file: StaticString = __FILE__,
        line: UInt = __LINE__,
        testCase: () -> Void
        ) {

            expectAssertionReturnFunction("assertionFailure", file: file, line: line, function: { (caller) -> () in

                Assertions.assertionFailureClosure = { message, _, _ in
                    caller(false, message)
                }

                }, expectedMessage: expectedMessage, testCase: testCase) { () -> () in
                    Assertions.assertionFailureClosure = Assertions.swiftAssertionFailureClosure
            }
    }

    /**
     Expects an `precondition` to be called with a false condition.
     If `precondition` not called or the precondition's condition is true, the test case will fail.

     - parameter expectedMessage: The expected message to be asserted to the one passed to the `precondition`. If nil, then ignored.
     - parameter file:            The file name that called the method.
     - parameter line:            The line number that called the method.
     - parameter testCase:        The test case to be executed that expected to fire the assertion method.
     */
    public func expectPrecondition(
        expectedMessage: String? = nil,
        file: StaticString = __FILE__,
        line: UInt = __LINE__,
        testCase: () -> Void
        ) {

            expectAssertionReturnFunction("precondition", file: file, line: line, function: { (caller) -> () in

                Assertions.preconditionClosure = { condition, message, _, _ in
                    caller(condition, message)
                }

                }, expectedMessage: expectedMessage, testCase: testCase) { () -> () in
                    Assertions.preconditionClosure = Assertions.swiftPreconditionClosure
            }
    }

    /**
     Expects an `preconditionFailure` to be called.
     If `preconditionFailure` not called, the test case will fail.

     - parameter expectedMessage: The expected message to be asserted to the one passed to the `preconditionFailure`. If nil, then ignored.
     - parameter file:            The file name that called the method.
     - parameter line:            The line number that called the method.
     - parameter testCase:        The test case to be executed that expected to fire the assertion method.
     */
    public func expectPreconditionFailure(
        expectedMessage: String? = nil,
        file: StaticString = __FILE__,
        line: UInt = __LINE__,
        testCase: () -> Void
        ) {

            expectAssertionNoReturnFunction("preconditionFailure", file: file, line: line, function: { (caller) -> () in

                Assertions.preconditionFailureClosure = { message, _, _ in
                    caller(message)
                }

                }, expectedMessage: expectedMessage, testCase: testCase) { () -> () in
                    Assertions.preconditionFailureClosure = Assertions.swiftPreconditionFailureClosure
            }
    }

    /**
     Expects an `fatalError` to be called.
     If `fatalError` not called, the test case will fail.

     - parameter expectedMessage: The expected message to be asserted to the one passed to the `fatalError`. If nil, then ignored.
     - parameter file:            The file name that called the method.
     - parameter line:            The line number that called the method.
     - parameter testCase:        The test case to be executed that expected to fire the assertion method.
     */
    public func expectFatalError(
        expectedMessage: String? = nil,
        file: StaticString = __FILE__,
        line: UInt = __LINE__,
        testCase: () -> Void) {

            expectAssertionNoReturnFunction("fatalError", file: file, line: line, function: { (caller) -> () in

                Assertions.fatalErrorClosure = { message, _, _ in
                    caller(message)
                }

                }, expectedMessage: expectedMessage, testCase: testCase) { () -> () in
                    Assertions.fatalErrorClosure = Assertions.swiftFatalErrorClosure
            }
    }

    // MARK:- Private Methods

    private func expectAssertionReturnFunction(
        functionName: String,
        file: StaticString,
        line: UInt,
        function: (caller: (Bool, String) -> Void) -> Void,
        expectedMessage: String? = nil,
        testCase: () -> Void,
        cleanUp: () -> ()
        ) {

            let expectation = expectationWithDescription(functionName + "-Expectation")
            var assertion: (condition: Bool, message: String)? = nil

            function { (condition, message) -> Void in
                assertion = (condition, message)
                expectation.fulfill()
            }

            // perform on the same thread since it will return
            testCase()

            waitForExpectationsWithTimeout(0) { _ in

                defer {
                    // clean up
                    cleanUp()
                }

                guard let assertion = assertion else {
                    XCTFail(functionName + " is expected to be called.", file: file.stringValue, line: line)
                    return
                }

                XCTAssertFalse(assertion.condition, functionName + " condition expected to be false", file: file.stringValue, line: line)

                if let expectedMessage = expectedMessage {
                    // assert only if not nil
                    XCTAssertEqual(assertion.message, expectedMessage, functionName + " called with incorrect message.", file: file.stringValue, line: line)
                }
            }
    }

    private func expectAssertionNoReturnFunction(
        functionName: String,
        file: StaticString,
        line: UInt,
        function: (caller: (String) -> Void) -> Void,
        expectedMessage: String? = nil,
        testCase: () -> Void,
        cleanUp: () -> ()
        ) {

            let expectation = expectationWithDescription(functionName + "-Expectation")
            var assertionMessage: String? = nil

            function { (message) -> Void in
                assertionMessage = message
                expectation.fulfill()
            }

            // act, perform on separate thead because a call to function runs forever
            dispatch_async(dispatch_get_global_queue(QOS_CLASS_USER_INITIATED, 0), testCase)

            waitForExpectationsWithTimeout(noReturnFailureWaitTime) { _ in

                defer {
                    // clean up
                    cleanUp()
                }

                guard let assertionMessage = assertionMessage else {
                    XCTFail(functionName + " is expected to be called.", file: file.stringValue, line: line)
                    return
                }

                if let expectedMessage = expectedMessage {
                    // assert only if not nil
                    XCTAssertEqual(assertionMessage, expectedMessage, functionName + " called with incorrect message.", file: file.stringValue, line: line)
                }
            }
    }
}

3. Use assert, assertionFailure, precondition, preconditionFailure and fatalError normally as you always do.

For example: If you have a function that does a division like the following:

func divideFatalError(x: Float, by y: Float) -> Float {

    guard y != 0 else {
        fatalError("Zero division")
    }

    return x / y
}

4. Unit test them with the new methods expectAssert, expectAssertionFailure, expectPrecondition, expectPreconditionFailure and expectFatalError.

You can test the 0 division with the following code.

func testFatalCorrectMessage() {
    expectFatalError("Zero division") {
        divideFatalError(1, by: 0)
    }
}

Or if you don’t want to test the message, you simply do.

func testFatalErrorNoMessage() {
    expectFatalError() {
        divideFatalError(1, by: 0)
    }
}

Swift 3.1

Based on Ken’s answer.

In your App Target add the following:

import Foundation

// overrides Swift global `fatalError`
public func fatalError(_ message: @autoclosure () -> String = "", file: StaticString = #file, line: UInt = #line) -> Never {
    FatalErrorUtil.fatalErrorClosure(message(), file, line)
    unreachable()
}

/// This is a `noreturn` function that pauses forever
public func unreachable() -> Never {
    repeat {
        RunLoop.current.run()
    } while (true)
}

/// Utility functions that can replace and restore the `fatalError` global function.
public struct FatalErrorUtil {

    // Called by the custom implementation of `fatalError`.
    static var fatalErrorClosure: (String, StaticString, UInt) -> Never = defaultFatalErrorClosure

    // backup of the original Swift `fatalError`
    private static let defaultFatalErrorClosure = { Swift.fatalError($0, file: $1, line: $2) }

    /// Replace the `fatalError` global function with something else.
    public static func replaceFatalError(closure: @escaping (String, StaticString, UInt) -> Never) {
        fatalErrorClosure = closure
    }

    /// Restore the `fatalError` global function back to the original Swift implementation
    public static func restoreFatalError() {
        fatalErrorClosure = defaultFatalErrorClosure
    }
}

In your test target add the following:

import Foundation
import XCTest

extension XCTestCase {
    func expectFatalError(expectedMessage: String, testcase: @escaping () -> Void) {

        // arrange
        let expectation = self.expectation(description: "expectingFatalError")
        var assertionMessage: String? = nil

        // override fatalError. This will pause forever when fatalError is called.
        FatalErrorUtil.replaceFatalError { message, _, _ in
            assertionMessage = message
            expectation.fulfill()
            unreachable()
        }

        // act, perform on separate thead because a call to fatalError pauses forever
        DispatchQueue.global(qos: .userInitiated).async(execute: testcase)

        waitForExpectations(timeout: 0.1) { _ in
            // assert
            XCTAssertEqual(assertionMessage, expectedMessage)

            // clean up
            FatalErrorUtil.restoreFatalError()
        }
    }
}

Test case:

class TestCase: XCTestCase {
    func testExpectPreconditionFailure() {
        expectFatalError(expectedMessage: "boom!") {
            doSomethingThatCallsFatalError()
        }
    }
}